The Ukrainian case during the Polish-Bolshevik war of 1919-1921

Piłsudski was of the opinion that the Republic of Poland could not survive between “two millstones” – the Russian Empire and Germany. Germany was ethnically homogeneous; it was impossible to break them down. The shifting of the border in Silesia, Pomerania or Prussia would not change the essence of the potential disproportion between them and...

Prof. Tomasz Schramm: Anders' generation used their chance almost 100%
Interview with Prof. Tomasz Schramm

Anders was a representative of the generation which, thanks to active work in the interwar period, could then pass the story of free Poland to following generations of Poles. Therefore, after the Second World War, Anders served as a representative  of Polish independence. However, it was only symbolic for many years and remained so until...

The roads to (an independent) Belarus

Without the Belarusian People’s Republic and several military formations established at the end of the First World War and several months after its end, there would be neither the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic nor the present-day Republic of Belarus on the territory between the Bug and Berezina rivers. by Wojciech Stanisławski   For many reasons,...

St. Maria Faustina Kowalska and the cult of Divine Mercy
The 115th anniversary of St. Faustina’s birthday

The cult of Divine Mercy, which has its roots in Poland, is one of the most important and widespread forms of Catholic devotion both at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries. The character of the cult is undoubtedly universal – whether in Latin America or Japan, Australia or Poland...

What Can Poland Do?
Questions Concerning the International Significance of the Polish–Soviet War and its Outcome in 1920

‘What Can Poland Do? Questions Concerning the International Significance of the Polish–Soviet War and its Outcome in 1920’ is an article by Professor Andrzej Nowak lifted from the book titled The Polish Victory of 1920 published by the Polish History Museum.   ‘In mainstream Polish historiography, the period of the First World War is perceived...

Jan Kowalewski’s three victories
Polish cryptologist at war

An inscrutable face, a short moustache, today bringing no good associations yet a century ago almost a classic feature of an officer’s image, and original service ribbons on his distinctions – from the Silesian Cross of Valour to the Order of the Rising Sun. The phrase ‘He took many secrets to his grave’ sounds like...

Sigismund II Augustus: a Renaissance portrait of a melancholic man
The 500th anniversary of Sigismund Augustus’s birthday

It seems he basked in the full glory of the Polish “golden age” from the moment of his birth. The firstborn, long-awaited royal son, and heir to the largest state in Central and Eastern Europe, almost a million kilometers long and stretching (it strokes Poles’ ego, this phrase, and we will hear more of it)...

Russian politics of memory towards Poland
The bones of contention between Poland and Russia

Out of the many countries in Europe with which Russia has had conflicts over historical interpretation, Poland occupies a special place. It belongs to those countries – alongside Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia – which have been criticized by Russian authorities and Kremlin-friendly commentators the most frequently and vehemently. One can also claim, without exaggeration,...

Inaugural address of Premier Tadeusz Mazowiecki

The first free election in Poland’s post-war history was held on June 4, 1989 and brought victory to the Solidarity movement and defeat to the governing camp. In fact, the election was only partly free, as – in accordance with the Round Table agreements jointly reached earlier that year by the democratic opposition and the...

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Polishhistory is an online project of the Polish History Museum in Warsaw. It is primarily addressed to all those interested in Polish and Central European history. Our aim is to build a community consisting of those professionally involved in research and of those interested in the outcomes of research, essentially, all lovers of history. The...