Appeal of the Workers’ Defense Committee to Society and the Authorities of the PRL

In the communist People’s Republic of Poland (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) the authorities had full control of the economy. They decided about the production volume, distribution manner, and retail prices. The December 1970 increase in food prices sparked social unrest. Even though it was forcedly suppressed by the government (a few dozen people were shot)…


Blood on the pavement. Grodno 1939

On 17 September 1939, the Soviets attacked Poland and reached Grodno on September 20. Grodno, a city in pre-war, eastern Poland (now in Belarus) fought for three days in September 1939 with the Soviet army. Seeing no chance for further defense, on 22 September the Polish forces withdrew towards the Lithuanian border. Several hundred Polish…


The MS Piłsudski - "The Polish Titanic"

The MS Piłsudski, a luxury Polish passenger ship during the interwar period, was widely considered a symbol of the newly independent Poland’s access to the sea. That is, until it sunk mysteriously in 1939, earning the nickname “the Polish Titanic.” by Anna Zhou   Modern, sleek, luxurious, the MS Piłsudski was the pride of the…


Stanisław Moniuszko: founder of the Polish national opera

Stanisław Moniuszko, one of Poland’s greatest composers, was born on 5 May 1819 in Ubiel in the Minsk province (currently Belarus). As a composer, he was well-known for incorporating elements of folklore and the works of national poets into his musical compositions. During his career, he wrote several hundred songs and church songs as well…


Maurycy Mochnacki: an entangled revolutionary

Passionate, volatile, demagogic and captivating: Maurycy Mochnacki both co-creates and embodies the model Polish Romantic hero. It seems as if he descended from the pages of the poems and novels that he praised and promoted. And yet he lived, burned and suffered a defeat in the most real of stories. by Wojciech Stanisławski   He…


Mikołaj Rej: the father of Polish literature

Although the Polish literary language began to develop much earlier, it is Mikołaj Rej who is considered ‘Poland’s Dante’ as the father of national literature and the creator of an original Polish style. Mikołaj Rej, the Renaissance writer, poet, and translator, was born in Żurawno in Red Ruthenia [eastern Galicia] on 4 February 1505. by…


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