The Cabinet of Tadeusz Mazowiecki

The Cabinet of Tadeusz Mazowiecki was appointed on 12 September 1989, and today we celebrate the 30th anniversary of this historical event. Mazowiecki, important figure of the democratic opposition, became the first non-communist premier of Poland after 1945. Full text of the Inaugural address of Premier Tadeusz Mazowiecki The first semi-free election in Poland’s post-war…


General Stanisław Maczek and His Soldiers

Krakowskie Przedmieście Street next to Zamkowy Square in Warsaw is now a venue for a unique open-air exhibition prepared by the Polish History Museum in cooperation with the General Maczek Museum in the Dutch city of Breda. After the Polish capital, where it can be viewed until 28 September, the trilingual exhibition (presented in Polish,…


1 September 1939: The beginning of hell

“This means war. From now on, all other matters and issues become of secondary importance”, stated the message broadcast by Polish Radio on the morning of 1 September 1939. “We set our public and private lives on a special track. We have entered war. The entire effort of the nation must go in one direction….


The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

It is officially known under the name of the Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In fact, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact’s most important element was a secret protocol that projected new borders of Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, euphemistically called “spheres of influence”. As a result of the mutual agreement…


21 demands of MKS

Communism, which was imposed on Poland in 1945, elicited society’s opposition and resistance. The economic crisis that was becoming increasingly severe in Poland from the mid-1970s, coupled with the growing consolidation of opposition milieux, led to an outbreak of societal discontent in the summer of 1980. Initially, the protests were characterized by uncoordinated strikes in…


Union of Krewo (Act of Kreva)

This document, known as the Union of Krewo (also, the Act of Kreva), was issued on August 14, 1385 by  Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila), Grand Duke of Lithuania, as the outcome of the negotiations he had conducted with the Polish lords acting on behalf of the child queen Jadwiga (Hedwig), and Jadwiga’s mother  Elżbieta Bośniaczka (Elisabeth…


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