The Warsaw Confederation (1573)
the 450th anniversary of the Warsaw Confederation

The declaration of the Warsaw Confederation was approved on January 28, 1573, at the Convocation Sejm held in Warsaw after the heirless death of King  Zygmunt II August (Sigismund II Augustus)  and prior to the first free election of a monarch. The Sejm was convoked in order to lay down the principles for electing the...

Auschwitz. A Bitter Taste of Liberation
78th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz-Birkenau

The end of Auschwitz came on 27 January 1945. That day, soldiers of the 60th Army of the 1st Ukrainian Front of the Red Army took control of the vast camp area. About seven thousand prisoners, including several hundred children, lived to see liberation in Auschwitz, Birkenau and Monowitz. The majority of the nearly 60,000...

Solidarity Day: United States and the support of “Solidarity”
US President's Ronald Reagan declaration 30 January 1982 to be Solidarity Day

US President Ronald Reagan declared 30 January 1982 to be Solidarity Day. This was both a gesture of support for the citizens of the People’s Republic of Poland and one of opposition to martial law in Poland. However, the White House did not intend limit itself to symbolic gestures. by Tomasz Kozłowski   In late...

Roman Dmowski’s speech at a meeting of the Council of Ten
104rd anniversary of the Speech

The end of World War I in November 1918 made it necessary to conclude peace treaties that would define the borders of the states that emerged after the fall of the German Empire, Austria-Hungary and the Russian Empire. The natural representative of the Polish people were the circles gathered around Roman Dmowski and the Polish...

Witold Lutosławski: likely the most outstanding Polish composer after Chopin and Szymanowski
110th anniversary of the composer's birth

There are actually few composers active in the 20th century who can be referred to as ‘contemporary classics’. Witold Lutosławski certainly belongs to this narrow group. An artist who, confronting the key issues of the 20th-century art of composition, created pieces that impress with their balance of intellect and emotion, and are simultaneously extremely open...

The voices of the survivors are the most important
78th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz-Birkenau

Auschwitz-Birkenau is the world’s largest Jewish, Polish and Roma cemetery. This is neither rhetoric nor poetry. For centuries, the earth will continue to hide here the ashes from the crematoria and bits of unburnt bones. It will be saturated with human blood and fat. Literally. by Marek Zając   That’s how one should see it....

Parliamentary resolution regarding dethronement of Nicholas I
192st anniversary of proclamation of the Act

In 1815 the Congress of Vienna, convened after the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte, decided to create a Kingdom of Poland. Through the person of the Tsar, it was joined in a personal union with Russia. The Tsar and King in a single person, Alexander I, guaranteed the new Kingdom its own constitution, along with a...

The January Uprising from a revolutionary perspective, in 1863 and 1905
160th anniversary of the January Uprising

Of all the Polish insurrections in the 19th century, the January Uprising is still an emotional topic. There are many reasons for this – not only was it the largest of the Polish uprisings, but also the most significant in terms of its long-term results. On the one hand, the January Uprising is very symbolic...

Order to dissolve the Home Army given by Home Army Commander-in-Chief General Leopold Okulicki
78th anniversary of the dissolution of the Home Army

The first underground groups in German-occupied Poland began to be established as early as in the autumn of 1939. The Home Army (Armia Krajowa, AK), an underground army subordinate to the Polish government in exile and the Commander-in-Chief, took its final shape in February 1942. Its Commanders-in-Chief in chronological order were: Stefan Rowecki ‘Grot’ (arrested...

Wanda Rutkiewicz: the first lady of world Himalayan mountaineering
First woman to reach the summit of K2 and the first European woman to climb Mount Everest

Wanda Rutkiewicz was one of the best Himalayan climbers in history and a pioneer of all-female climbing in the world’s highest mountains. She climbed eight eight-thousanders. She always looked at Himalayan mountaineering through the prism of sport. She pushed her own limits, wanted to be the best every time, and never gave up on the...

Dr hab. P. Szlanta: Poland turned out to be a beneficiary of the Versailles Treaty
an interview with Professor Piotr Szlanta

Poland turned out to be a beneficiary of the Versailles Treaty. It was among the victorious powers after the First World War and participated in peace negotiations, which was a kind of miracle of resurrection – says Dr. Piotr Szlanta, a historian from the University of Warsaw. One hundred years ago, on 28 June 1919...

Ernest Malinowski: the engineer who designed the Central Trans-Andean Railway
Polish engineer, national hero of Peru

‘Ernest Malinowski 1818-1899. Polish Engineer. Peruvian Patriot. Hero of the Defence of Callao in 1866. Builder of the Central Trans-Andean Railway.’ Such an inscription adorns one of the monuments in the Peruvian Andes. Adam Ernest Malinowski was a Polish emigrant who designed and built the world’s highest railway line in Peru. by Piotr Bejrowski  ...

Mieczysław Jałowiecki - a forgotten hero of the battle for Polish Gdańsk

Two trusted companions, a gun and a determination to revive the nation after the hardships of war and partition were all that Mieczysław Jałowiecki had when he embarked on a seemingly impossible diplomatic mission to Gdańsk. His courageous efforts would help Poland bolster its new found identity in Gdansk and through his vision and drive...

Wilno celebrates its 700th birthday

A few days ago, on 25 January, Wilno celebrated its round 700th anniversary. This is undoubtedly an important celebration for Lithuania, but it is also no less of a cause for celebration for Poland. For many years, Wilno has been one of the most important cities and has left an extremely important mark that is...

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Polishhistory is an online project of the Polish History Museum in Warsaw. It is primarily addressed to all those interested in Polish and Central European history. Our aim is to build a community consisting of those professionally involved in research and of those interested in the outcomes of research, essentially, all lovers of history. The...