Community builder: Jan Łaski (1499-1560)

The Reformation proved that religion could divide not only nations but also families. The Łaski family offers a notable example with the story of its two most prominent members, who shared the same name. The elder Jan Łaski was born in 1456 and served as archbishop of Gniezno, primate of Poland, and chancellor. He was…


Ambassador Józef Lipski visiting Hitler on 20 September 1938

There is no point in discussing Poland’s responsibility for the outbreak of World War II. Those who make this claim are fully aware of the fact that it in no way corresponds with reality. Unfortunately, this is because a lie has long served as a tool of Russian historical policy. Insulting accusations by the leader…


The Balcerowicz plan: an economic leap into the unknown

Three decades ago, parliament passed a package of bills rebuilding the Polish economy – they came to be known as “The Balcerowicz plan”. The dispute over the assessment of these reforms has been ongoing since 1989. One thing is certain – it was a pioneering operation that allowed for a rapid transition from communism to…


On the foundations of reconciliation

“We have written this not only to the German nation, but to our own nation as well. What we have written is (truly) devoid of cheap historical lies. We believe that an opportunity has presented itself – an opportunity to bring about a turning point in the current situation. We implore you, do not turn…


The Victors and the Polish Cause at the End of the Great War

When exactly 101 years ago, on 11 November 1918, the military operations ceased and the armistice ended the Great War the world was waiting for the accords of the peace conference which was to be held soon to determine the future of the world. A question remains: what did the main victorious powers offer Poland?…


The Gdańsk Agreement as a political experiment

The nature of the August 1980 strikes was not unlike that of a social contract. Tens of thousands of individuals who took industrial action had agreed between themselves that society must be restored after years of enduring erosion and decay at the hands of the Communist regime. A political community could thus be re-established. According…


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