|Call For Papers for the 7th Polish-Israeli Young Scholars Workshop on the History and Culture of Polish Jews in Kraków|
|Doctoral Students and recent PHD’s are invited to take part in the 7th Polish – Israeli Young Scholars Workshop on the History and Culture of Polish Jews that will take place in Kraków from June 29 to July 2, 2020.
The 7th Polish-Israeli Young Scholars Workshop will be hosted and organized by Institute of Jewish Studies of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, in cooperation with other academic institutions in Israel (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Tel Aviv University, Bar Ilan University, Open University of Israel) and in Poland (Jagiellonian University in Kraków, University of Wrocław).
The workshop will include presentations by doctoral students and recent post-doctoral scholars, responses by senior scholars, discussions, keynote lectures and cultural activities.
The organizers are expecting applications from young scholars whose dissertations are dealing with any aspects of the history and culture of Polish Jews and heritage of Polish Jewry in Israel, Poland and Diaspora.
Application process and deadline
Candidates should submit an application in English to the organizers at the Institute of Jewish Studies of the Jagiellonian University at the following e-mail address: workshop.krakow2020@
Applications should consist of one Word or PDF file and include:
For further details please contact:
- September 20, 1920 - The Battle of the Niemen River began. It was the second-greatest battle of the Polish–Soviet War after the Battle of Warsaw (16-25 August 1920). The Poles outflanked the Soviets and crushed the Red Army, thwarting Bolshevik plans to take over Poland and export the communist revolution to Western Europe.
- September 19, 1897 - Polish poet and political writer Kornel Ujejski died near Lwów. Named the "last of the greatest poets of Romanticism”, his writing conveyed patriotic and historic messages meant to support the Polish people in their fight for independence.
- September 18, 1939 - The Battle of Wilno began. The battle was fought by the Polish Army against the Soviet invasion of Poland on 18-19 September 1939. In the aftermath, the Soviets transferred Wilno to Lithuania according to the Soviet–Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty.
- September 17, 1939 - The Soviet invasion of Poland began without a formal declaration of war. The Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east, sixteen days after Germany invaded Poland from the west. This act was the implementation of a "secret protocol" of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed on 23 August 1939, which divided Poland into "spheres of influence" between the two powers and drastically impacted the future existence of the Polish state and nation.
- September 16, 1825 -The important sentimental Polish poet Franciszek Karpiński died. An important Polish figure during the Age of Enlightenment, Karpiński wrote several religious and patriotic songs, hymns and carols. He is author of "Bóg się rodzi" ("God Is Born"), one of the most beloved Polish Christmas carols.
- September 15, 1862 - Polish romantic poet, writer and translator Władysław Syrokomla died in Wilno. His works had a great influence on many artists in the 19th century, among them were the Polish poet Teofil Lenartowicz and the Russian classical composer Pyotr Tchaikovsky.
- September 14, 2000 - Jerzy Giedroyc died in Maisons-Laffitte, France. He was a Polish writer, émigré publicist, political activist and one of the most important figures of the Polish diaspora. For many years he was an editor of "Kultura", the highly influential Paris-based periodical on culture and politics.
- September 13, 1894 - The Polish poet Julian Tuwim was born in Łódź. He was the co-founder the Skamander group of experimental poets. And was a major figure in Polish literature during the interwar period. He was also admired for his contribution to children's literature.
- September 12, 1683 - The Battle of Vienna took place. It was fought by the Holy Roman Empire and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, both under the command of Polish King John III Sobieski, against the Ottomans and their vassal and tributary states. It was a decisive victory for the Christian coalition in the War of the Holy League and the battle marked the historic end of Ottoman imperial expansion into Europe.
- September 11, 1932 - Polish aviators Stanisław Wigura and Franciszek Żwirko fatally crashed in a plane accident in Czechoslovakia. Prominent Polish sport and military aviators , they won the international air contest Challenge 1932 on a Polish RWD-6 aircraft, which was the first major international success for Polish sport aviation.
- September 10, 1939 - The Battle of Wizna ended. Between 350 and 720 Poles defended a fortified line for three days against more than 40,000 Germans. Wizna is sometimes referred to as the "Polish Thermopylae". During the battle, Captain Władysław Raginis, the commanding officer of the Polish force, swore to hold his position as long as he was alive. When his units ran out of ammunition, he ordered his men to surrender their arms and committed suicide by throwing himself on a live grenade.
- September 9, 1939 - The 10-day long Battle of the Bzura began. It was the largest battle of the 1939 German invasion of Poland. It began as a Polish counter-offensive, but the Germans outflanked the Polish forces were able to seize all of western Poland. Winston Churchill called this battle an "ever-glorious struggle".
- September 8, 1968 - Ryszard Siwiec committed suicide by public self-immolation in protest against the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. He was a Polish accountant and former Home Army resistance member.
- September 7, 1943 - Operation Bürkl was carried out. The goal of the operation was to "liquidate" Franz Bürkl, a notorious member of the Sicherheitspolizei (Security Police) and one of the most sadistic officers in the Pawiak prison in Warsaw. He had been sentenced to death by the Polish Special Courts (a part of Polish Underground State) for the murder of at least several dozen people.
- September 6, 1831 - Polish artillery general Józef Sowiński died in Warsaw. He was known as one of the heroes of Poland's November 1830 Uprising during which he personally commanded the heroic defense of the Polish capital's western approaches until he was bayonetted to death by the Russians just after the surrender negotiations. His death was immortalized by Polish poets, including Juliusz Słowacki in his “Sowiński w okopach Woli” (Sowiński in the Wola Trenches).
- September 5, 1915 - the Polish painter and art theoretician Stanisław Witkiewicz died in Zakopane. He was known for inventing the “Zakopane Style” of architecture (also known as the “Witkiewicz Style”), which can be seen in the homes and interiors he designed for well-off and artistically inclined Poles.
- September 4, 1809 - Polish Romantic poet Juliusz Słowacki, was born. Considered one of the "Three Bards" of Polish literature, he was a major figure in the Polish Romantic period, and the father of modern Polish drama. His most popular works include the poems "Beniowski", "Testament mój" and the dramas "Kordian" and "Balladyna".
- September 3, 1941 - in Auschwitz, the Nazi Germans used Zyklon B to carry out the first mass execution of 600 Soviet POWs and 250 Poles. This was the first instance of this gas being used to commit mass murder. In early 1942, Zyklon B was the preferred killing tool in extermination camps during the Holocaust. They used it to kill roughly 1.1 million people in gas chambers at Auschwitz-Birkenau, Majdanek, and elsewhere.
- September 2, 1944 - the Germans began the liquidation of hospitals in the Old Town during the Warsaw Uprising. Units lead by Heinz Reinefarth and Oskar Dirlewanger murdered the wounded insurgents who had been taken prisoner. In total, nearly 1,000 of them would be murdered during the Uprising, along with several thousand civilians (up to 7,000 people in total).
- September 1, 1939 - Nazi Germany invaded Poland and began World War II. This was followed by a global war, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries. It was the deadliest conflict in the history of mankind, resulting in 70 to 85 million fatalities.
- August 31, 1945 - Stefan Banach, an outstanding Polish mathematician, died in Lwów. He is considered one of the world's most important and influential mathematicians of the 20th century, especialy known as the founder of modern functional analysis.
- August 30, 1938 - Max Factor Sr. (born Maksymilian Faktorowicz) died in the USA. He was an Polish-American businessman, beautician, entrepreneur and inventor of Jewish descent. He is a founder of the cosmetics giant Max Factor & Company.
- August 29, 1756 - Jan Śniadecki was born. He was a mathematician, philosopher and astronomer, a member of the Commission of National Education, and the director of astronomical observatories in Kraków and Vilnius.
- On 28 August 1946, Danuta Siedzikówna "Inka" was murdered in Gdańsk. Siedzikówna was a Polish medical orderly and member of the anti-communist resistance movement. Captured, tortured and sentenced to death at the age of 17 by the communist authorities, she is today considered a national heroine of Poland.
- August 27. 1894 - Kazimierz Wierzyński was born in Drohobycz. He was a Polish poet and journalist; an elected member of the prestigious Polish Academy of Literature in the Second Polish Republic, and co-founder of Skamander group of poets. His early poems celebrated the joy of living, but his later works, written in exile, are more somber and socially conscious.
- August 26, 1938 - Teodor Axentowicz died in Kraków. Axentowicz was a Polish painter and the rector of the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków. Famous for his portraits, he was awarded many gold medals at both national and international exhibitions.
- August 25, 1905 - Saint Faustyna Kowalska was born in Głogowiec. She was a Polish Roman Catholic nun and mystic. Her visions of Jesus Christ inspired Roman Catholic devotion to Divine Mercy.
- On 24 August 1776, Józef Hoene-Wroński was born in Wolsztyn. Hoene-Wrońsk was a Polish Messianist philosopher, mathematician, physicist and inventor. He was engaged in mathematical analysis, especially the development of functions into a power series and differential equations. His most important achievements include the development of the eponymously named functional determinant of equations, the Wrońskian.
- August 23, 1939 - Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed a non-aggression treaty, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. In the pact’s Secret Protocol, the Baltic states, Finland, Romania, and Poland were divided between the two nations. As a result of this mutual agreement between the two totalitarian regimes, World War II broke out a week later on 1 September 1939.
- August 22, 1584 - Jan Kochanowski died in Lublin. He was a Polish Renaissance poet who established the poetic patterns that would become integral to Poland's literary language. He is commonly regarded as the greatest Polish poet before Adam Mickiewicz.
- August 21, 1944 - Maciej Kalenkiewicz was killed by the NKVD in Surkonty. Kalenkiewicz was a soldier from Henryk Dobrzański's military unit, an officer of the Home Army, loyal to the Polish Government in Exile, and a member of Cichociemny (member of elite special-operations paratroopers).
- August 20, 1845 - Albert Chmielowski was born. He was a Polish nobleman, noted painter, disabled veteran of the January Uprising of 1863, founder of both the Albertine Brothers and a saint. Chmielowski abandoned his painting career in order to live among the poor and to accept a beggar's life. Karol Wojtyła (later Pope John Paul II) wrote a well-received play about him, entitled "Our God's Brother.”
- August 19, 1970 - Paweł Jasienica died in Warsaw. Jasienica was a Polish historian, journalist, essayist and member of the anti-Soviet resistance. His books, still very popular up to now, played an important role in popularizing Polish history among several generations of readers.
- August 18, 1925 - Polish Radio was founded and began regular broadcasts from Warsaw. From 1931, Polish Radio operated one national channel, transmitted through one of Europe's most powerful longwave transmitters, and nine regional stations.
- August 17, 1629 - Jan Sobieski, future king of Poland, was born in Olesko Castle. He was elected King of Poland in 1674. An able military leader, Sobieski was most famous for his victory over the Turks at the Battle of Vienna in 1683. The defeated Ottomans named Sobieski the "Lion of Lechistan", and the Pope hailed him as the "savior of Western Christendom.”
- August 16, 1910 - Zygmunt Gloger died in Warsaw. Gloger was a Polish historian and ethnographer. His life's work was the "Encyklopedia staropolska ilustrowana " (1900-1903), still considered a fundamental work about the culture of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
- August 15, 1920 - The Polish Army stopped Soviet troops during the Battle of Warsaw and halted the spread of communism further westwards into Europe. The battle resulted in decisive Polish victory during the Polish–Soviet War. Lord D’Abernon called it “The eighteenth [most] decisive battle of the world.”
- August 14, 1980 - Labor strikes broke out in the Gdańsk Shipyard. A revival of labor disturbances and strikes erupted throughout the country. This was a consequence of the serious discontent caused by social unrest and the dire economic situation.
- August 13, 1920 - The Battle of Warsaw began. Bolshevik troops led by Mikhail Tukhachevsky attacked Polish positions only 23 kilometers outside of Warsaw. Poland, on the verge of total defeat, repulsed and defeated the Red Army in a battle that Vladimir Lenin, the Bolshevik leader, called "an enormous defeat" for his forces.
- August 11, 1937 - The so-called Polish Operation of the NKVD began in the Soviet Union. It was a genocide against Poles living in the USSR during the period of so-called Great Purge. It resulted in the executions of more than 111,000 members of the Polish minority. It was the largest killing of Poles in history outside of any armed conflict.
- August 10, 1889 - Zofia Kossak-Szczucka was born. She was a Polish writer and World War II resistance fighter. She co-founded two wartime Polish organizations: Front for the Rebirth of Poland and Żegota, set up to assist Polish Jews to escape the Holocaust. Later she was recognized as among the Righteous Among Nations.
- August 9, 1650 - Jerzy Ossoliński died in Warsaw. He was a Polish magnate, writer, diplomat and one of the most influential politicians of his time. He had a major impact on Poland’s foreign policy in the first half of the 17th century.
- August 8, 1747 - The Załuski Library in Warsaw was opened to the public. It is considered the first Polish public library. Initially it held some 200,000 items, maps and precious manuscripts. These holdings were deliberately destroyed by German troops during the planned destruction of Warsaw in October 1944.
- August 7, 1944 - A massive attack of German artillery on the Warsaw Old Town during the Warsaw Uprising began. By January 1945, 90% of the city’s historic buildings were completely destroyed.
- August 6, 1942 - Roman Kramsztyk was shot dead by a soldier of the so-called Russian Liberation Army subordinated to the Nazi German high command in Warsaw Ghetto. Kramsztyk was a Polish realist painter of Jewish descent famous for his portraits and still life. During his sojourn in the ghetto he created drawings showing the life of the Jews imprisoned there.
- August 5, 1944 - Nazi Germans began a week-long massacre of between 40,000 and 50,000 Polish civilians and prisoners of war in Wola, a suburb of Warsaw. The massacre was ordered by Hitler who ordered them to kill "anything that moves". Most of the victims were the elderly, women and children.
- August 4, 1944 - Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński died during the Warsaw Uprising. Baczynski was a Polish poet and Home Army soldier, one of the most well-known of the Generation of Columbuses, the generation of Poles who were born soon after Poland’s restoration of independence in 1918, and whose adolescence was marked by the tragic times of World War II.
- August 3, 1914 - Józef Piłsudski founded the First Cadre Company. A predecessor of the Polish Legions, it formed the core of the Polish Legions' First Brigade during World War I. It was the first Polish regular military unit on Polish soil since the January Uprising.
- August 2, 1841 - Karol Levittoux committed suicide in Warsaw. Levittoux was a young Polish independence fighter, who set fire to his straw mattress and subsequently died in Russian prison. He didn't want to betray his companions during torture, and become a symbol of a steadfast attitude and dedication to Poland.
- On 1 August 1944, the Warsaw Uprising against the Nazi German occupation broke out. It was an operation led by the Home Army, a Polish resistance group, to liberate Warsaw from German occupation. It was the single largest military effort undertaken by any European resistance movement during World War II numbered 50,000 soldiers. After 63 days, Poles were forced to surrender.
- July 31, 1953 - Kornel Makuszyński died in Zakopane. He was a popular Polish writer of children’s and young adult literature. His children's books, particularly his series about the goat, Koziołek Matołek, have achieved an enduring popularity in Poland and Israel. Makuszyński was temporarily blacklisted during the Stalinist period.
- July 30, 1656 - The Polish army was defeated in the battle of Warsaw by Swedish and Brandenburg-Prussia forces. It was a major battle in the Second Northern War between Poland and Sweden in the period between 1655-1660.
- July 29, 1979 - The Young Poland Movement was established in Gdańsk. It was an anti-communist organization formed by a group of young people active in the democratic opposition. They combined both democratic and conservative traditions in their ideological concepts. The movement is considered one of the most important Polish intellectual groups of the 1970s and 1980s.
- July 28, 1998 - Zbigniew Herbert died in Warsaw. He was a Polish poet, essayist, drama writer and moralist. He is one of the best known and the most translated post-war Polish writers. He created the figure of Mr. Cogito, embodying the universal element of humanity and expressing his opinions on various aspects of life and existence.
- July 27, 1597 - Jakub Wujek died in Kraków. A Polish Jesuit, writer, Doctor of Theology, nd Vice-Chancellor of the Vilnius Academy, Wujek also translated the Bible into Polish. The Jakub Wujek Bible was the main Polish translation of the Bible used in the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland from the late 16th century till the mid-20th century.
- July 26, 1941 - Kazimierz Bartel was murdered by special order of Heinrich Himmler. Bartel was an established Polish mathematician, rector of Lwów Polytechnic and three times Prime Minister of Poland. After the Nazi Germans entered Lwów, the Gestapo offered him a top post in their puppet government, but he definitively refused. He was shot soon after the Massacre of the Lwów professors.
- July 25, 1510 - Florian Ungler founded the first printing house in Poland, printing books entirely in the Polish language. Ungler's typographic resource was both very rich and uneven. His printing house had several dozen sets of letters, a series of initials and over a thousand woodcuts.
- July 24, 1969 - Witold Gombrowicz died in Vence, France. A Polish poet and playwright, Gombrowicz is now considered one of the foremost figures of Polish literature in the 20th century. Alongside Bruno Schultz and Stanisław Ignacy WItkiewicz “Witkacy”, he is considered the most important Polish avant-garde artist in the 20th century.
- July 23, 1422 - King Władysław Jagiełło signed the Privilege of Czerwińsk. With this privilege, the King offered his pledge to the nobility that he would not confiscate their estates without permission from the juridical court. He also promised that the courts would operate on the basis of the written law.
- July 22, 1944 - The Polish Committee of National Liberation, a Soviet-backed usurper administration, published its manifesto. This is symbolically regarded as the starting point of Communist rule in Poland. The text of the manifesto, which was printed in Moscow, was also personally amended by Joseph Stalin.
- July 21, 1775 - Szymon Czechowicz died in Warsaw. He was one of the most prominent Polish painters of Baroque known for his portrait and sacral painting. Czechowicz established his own school of painting which would exercise a fundamental influence on Polish art.
- July 20, 1897 - Tadeusz Reichstein was born in Włocławek. A Polish and Swiss chemist and Nobel Prize laureate (1950) for his work on hormones, Reichstein later became interested in the phytochemistry and cytology of ferns. The principal industrial process for the artificial synthesis of Vitamin C still bears his name.
- July 19, 1943 - A Nazi German concentration camp was established in Warsaw (or Gęsiówka). It was built on the ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto by the special order of Heinrich Himmler. The camp was liberated by the Home Army during the Warsaw Uprising in August 1944.
- July 18, 1944 - After success at the Battle of Ancona, the armored troops of the Polish II Corps liberated the Italian city of Ancona from the Nazi Germans. Afterwards, the Corps took part in the breaking of the Gothic Line and the Allied spring 1945 offensive which resulted in the ultimate surrender of the Axis forces in Italy.
- July 17, 1399 - Jadwiga of Poland died in Kraków. She was the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland, and reigned from 16 October 1384 until her death. Her marriage to Władysław Jagiełło enabled the creation of the union of Poland and Lithuania, establishing one of the largest countries in Europe. In 1997, she was canonized by Pope John Paul II.
- July 16, 1518 - The Lubrański Academy was established in Poznań. A university college founded by Bishop Jan Lubrański, the Academy introduced new, and downright revolutionary teaching methods. Many well-known discussions, treatises, dictations, speeches and poems were written there.
- July 15, 1410 - The Battle of Grunwald took place. The allied forces of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeated the army of the Teutonic Order. It is considered one of the largest battles in medieval Europe.
- July 14, 1854 - Jacek Malczewski was born. Often referred to as the father of Polish Symbolism, Malczewski is one of the most revered painters in Poland’s history. His creative output combined the predominant style of his times, historical motifs of Polish martyrdom, the romantic ideals of independence, and Christian and Greek mythology.
- July 13, 2000 - Jan Karski died in Washington. He was a Polish resistance-fighter soldier. Between 1940 and 1943, Karski reported to the Polish Government-in-Exile and to Poland's Western Allies about the situation in German-occupied Poland, especially about Germany's extermination camps on Polish soil that were murdering Jews, Poles, and members of other nationalities.
- July 12, 1945 - The Augustów roundup took place. This was a military operation against the Polish anti-communist resistance movement following the Soviet takeover of Poland. Out of 2,000 Poles arrested by the Soviet forces, about 600 have never been located. They are presumed to have been executed and buried in an unknown location in present-day Russia or Belarus. The crime has been called the "second Katyn" or "little Katyn".
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