The Peace Treaty of Riga: A Stop-gap for Russian Expansion

The peace concluded between the Republic of Poland, of the one part, and Soviet Russia and Ukraine, of the other part, brought political order to the territories between the Baltic and Black Seas for 18 and a half years. Eventually, Hitler’s ally Moscow declared it ‘null and void’. by Wojciech Stanisławski   Who knows, maybe…


March Constitution 1921

11 November 1918 is considered the symbolic date on which Poland regained its independence. However, the process of laying down the legal foundations of the reborn state continued for a number of years. One of the main things was to draw up a constitution. As early as February 1919, the single-chamber Legislative Sejm (parliament) elected…


The Letter of 34

In October 1956, when Władysław Gomułka became the First Secretary of the Polish United Workers’ Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR), the society started to hope for the liberalisation of the communist system and more social freedom. Such hopes, expressed mainly by the intelligentsia, proved to be vain. In the autumn of 1957, the relations…



The Congress of Gniezno: The first Polish-German summit

In March 1000, an extraordinary event took place. The Holy Roman Emperor Otton III visited Gniezno, the then capital of the Polish state. The official aim of the visit to the state ruled by Bolesław Chrobry, was a pilgrimage to the grave of Saint Adalbert. In the mid 10th century, under the rule of Duke…


Antoni Patek and the most expensive watches in the world

The 19th century Polish insurgent and immigrant Antoni Patek was a pioneer in the industrial production of watches. Patek, the company he founded and which has been in the hands of another family for years, has been producing some of the best and most expensive watches in the world for almost two centuries. by Piotr…


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