The Act of 5 November 1916 and its Consequences

Act of 5 November 1916 proved important for the Polish cause, as for the first time since perhaps 1815, two partitioning powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary) sought Polish support against the other (Russia), and bidding began for this support. by Wojciech Roszkowski   A substantial change in the Central Powers’ attitude to the Polish cause came…


Mikołaj Rej: the father of Polish literature

Although the Polish literary language began to develop much earlier, it is Mikołaj Rej who is considered ‘Poland’s Dante’ as the father of national literature and the creator of an original Polish style. Mikołaj Rej, the Renaissance writer, poet, and translator, was born in Żurawno in Red Ruthenia [eastern Galicia] on 4 February 1505. by…


Piotr Lebiedziński and his cinematograph

The title of “pioneers of cinematography” belongs to the Lumière brothers forever. Film enthusiasts can only bow their heads and take their hats off to their efforts, much like we see the cast doing in scenes from the Arrival of a Train at a Station, one of their first productions. At the same time, however,…


The Zamoyski Academy: the heart of an ideal city

The grand opening of the Zamoyski Academy took place on 15 March 1595. This first Polish private university was located in a city purposefully built to reflect Renaissance ideals. by Piotr Bejrowski   Zamość is a unique city on a global scale, and was planned in accordance with the principles of the Renaissance “ideal city”….


Olga Boznańska: The painter of souls

Olga Boznańska is one of the most important artists of the 19th and early 20th Century, famous for her original style and boundless devotion to art. She was born in Krakow, the daughter of engineer Adam Boznański, Nowina coat of arms, and Eugénie Mondan, of French origin, on 15 April 1865. by Piotr Bejrowski  …


Maximilian Maria Kolbe – organizer, monk, and saint

Maximilian Maria Kolbe is a symbol of faith and sacrifice for many Poles. His decision to sacrifice his life for a fellow prisoner is a heroic example of humanity during inhuman times. by Piotr Abryszeński   As an adult, Maximilian Kolbe recalled that when he was a boy he had experienced a vision of the…


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