Paweł Edmund Strzelecki: The discoverer of Australia’s highest peak

He carried out the first measurements in Australia, discovered the Snowy Mountains, the highest range of the Great Dividing Range, and named the highest peak in Australia Mount Kosciuszko in honour of the Polish general. Meet Count Paweł Edmund Strzelecki. by Piotr Bejrowski   On 15 February 1840, Paweł Edmund Strzelecki became the first person…


Order to dissolve the Home Army given by Home Army Commander-in-Chief General Leopold Okulicki

The first underground groups in German-occupied Poland began to be established as early as in the autumn of 1939. The Home Army (Armia Krajowa, AK), an underground army subordinate to the Polish government in exile and the Commander-in-Chief, took its final shape in February 1942. Its Commanders-in-Chief in chronological order were: Stefan Rowecki ‘Grot’ (arrested…


Sułkowski: a Polish Jacobin and Napoleon’s aide-de-camp

Józef Sułkowski (Joseph Sulkowski) was an aide-de-camp to Napoleon Bonaparte, and a participant in the Italian and Egyptian campaigns. He was a radical republican and simultaneously an extremely courageous man with broad horizons, a talented and ambitious officer, and the author of interesting memoirs for whom, in his own words, ‘war glory and freedom were…


Adam Jerzy Czartoryski: in the service of the Polish cause

In his actions and writings, Adam Jerzy Czartoryski combined the ethics of the Enlightenment with a romantic vision of the world. From St. Petersburg and Paris he pursued a European policy, and in his book Rozważania o dyplomacji (Reflections on Diplomacy, 1830) he presented and developed the idea of ​​a united continent ‘A Europe of…



How did 18th-century Chinese imagine the Poles?

An English-language translation of the Qing Imperial Illustrations of Tributary Peoples – a Chinese ethnographic album created at the behest of Emperor Qianlong in the mid-18th century – has recently been published. The publication contains descriptions of peoples with whom the Middle Kingdom maintained contacts, including Poles. The Qing dynasty (1644-1912), led by the Manchu…


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