Precious kontush sashes in the PHM collection

The Polish History Museum (PHM) has acquired an extraordinarily precious collection of 22 sashes worn around the waist over the kontush (an outer robe with its sleeves cut from the armhole to the elbow), a key element of the Polish nobility’s attire. The purchase has been funded by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage….


Stanisław Szukalski

Stanisław Szukalski’s career was not an easy one, and the history of his popularity is even stranger. From fame to infamy, and then to finally regaining recognition as one of the most interesting Polish artists of the twentieth century. Even a few years ago, Stach from Warta (Szukalski’s pseudonym) was known only to a small…


“Genocide as a Crime under International Law”

Rafał Lemkin (1900–59) was an outstanding criminal law expert of Polonised-Jewish descent. He graduated from the Faculty of Law at the John Casimir University (Uniwersytet Jana Kazimierza) in Lwów. He contributed to the codification of the Polish penal law, and analysed criminal legislations of the totalitarian regimes of Italy and Soviet Russia. In 1933, he…


Note addressed to the Governments of the United Nations by the Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs, Edward Raczyński, regarding German crimes in occupied Poland

The double attack on Poland by Nazi Germany and the USSR in September 1939 led to the effective dissolution of the Polish state. Although Poland lost its sovereignty, its legal authorities continued to function, organising the Polish armed forces in France and later in Great Britain. Under these circumstances, the primary aim of the Polish…


Jan Długosz: father of Polish historiography

Historian, chronicler, heraldry expert, geographer, diplomat and educator of Polish kings, Jan Długosz was undoubtedly one of the greatest historiographers of the Middle Ages. This author of the monumental 12 volume Annals or Chronicles of the Famous Kingdom of Poland died on 19 May 1480 in Kraków. by Piotr Bejrowski   Długosz was born in…


Hilary Koprowski: the man who overcame polio

An effective polio vaccine, discovered in 1950, saved the health and lives of hundreds of thousands of children around the world. Born in 1916, the Polish doctor, virologist and immunologist Hilary Koprowski belonged to the elite “Pasteur club”, as the group of eminent vaccinologists working on new vaccines was called. by Piotr Bejrowski   Despite…


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