Hugo Kołłątaj: the dominant ideologue of the Polish Enlightenment

Hugo Kołłątaj was a towering figure of the Polish Enlightenment: a statesman, political writer and philosopher, as well as a promoter of science and education. He was a spokesman for socio-economic and political changes and a co-creator of the Constitution of 3rd May 1791. He was born in Derkały Wielkie in Volhynia on 1 April…


General Stanisław Maczek and the Black Devils

Generał Stanisław Maczek has gone down in history as a brilliant army general. The Germans called his army the Black Devils. He himself often said that „the Polish soldier fights for the freedom of all nations, but dies only for Poland”. Stanisław Maczek was born on the 31st of March 1892 to a Polish intelligentsia…



Adam Zagajewski (1945-2021): Canvass that Turned into a Shroud

On Sunday, 21 March 2021, the great Polish poet Adam Zagajewski passed away. In his poetic heyday, he would write poems critics called ‘classicising’, showing the world’s hidden beauty as well as emphasising the mysteriousness and uniqueness of human fate. And still, for a poet who defended the categories of beauty, mindfulness and detail, he…


To the Polish people. Manifesto of the Movement for Defence of Human and Citizen’s Rights

A wave of protests swept over Poland in June 1976 after the announcement of an increase in groceries’ prices. The authorities eventually resigned from price changes but introduced repression against the protesting workers. This met with a quick response from the intelligentsia, who organised financial and legal support for the repressed and soon started forming…


Józef Poniatowski: “Greater than the king, this prince”

He died on 19 October 1813 in the Battle of Leipzig – the decisive Battle of the Nations. The battle decided the fall of the First French Empire, and destroyed many hopes and dreams of reestablishing a sovereign Polish state in Europe. Józef Poniatowski, until the final days of his life, refused even the thought…


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