Blood on the pavement. Grodno 1939

On 17 September 1939, the Soviets attacked Poland and reached Grodno on September 20. Grodno, a city in pre-war, eastern Poland (now in Belarus) fought for three days in September 1939 with the Soviet army. Seeing no chance for further defense, on 22 September the Polish forces withdrew towards the Lithuanian border. Several hundred Polish…


1 September 1939: The beginning of hell

“This means war. From now on, all other matters and issues become of secondary importance”, stated the message broadcast by Polish Radio on the morning of 1 September 1939. “We set our public and private lives on a special track. We have entered war. The entire effort of the nation must go in one direction….


The Solidarity Revolution from the point of view of the KGB

General Mucha’s report of 23 August 1980 is the first known document of this status describing the KGB’s reaction to the events in Poland. The strikes are presented as a counter-revolution and it suggests that Poles should be given “brotherly help”. by Andrzej Grajewski   The addressee of the report is the First Secretary of…


Not just Gdańsk. The August 1980 Accords

It is generally believed that the accords with the state authorities were signed on 31 August 1980 in Gdańsk and nowhere else. The fact that similar agreements were signed the day before in Szczecin, and after Gdańsk also in Wałbrzych, Jastrzębie-Zdrój and Dąbrowa Górnicza, is largely unknown to the public. Yet it was all of…


21 demands of MKS

Communism, which was imposed on Poland in 1945, elicited society’s opposition and resistance. The economic crisis that was becoming increasingly severe in Poland from the mid-1970s, coupled with the growing consolidation of opposition milieux, led to an outbreak of societal discontent in the summer of 1980. Initially, the protests were characterized by uncoordinated strikes in…


Maximilian Maria Kolbe – organizer, monk, and saint

Maximilian Maria Kolbe is a symbol of faith and sacrifice for many Poles. His decision to sacrifice his life for a fellow prisoner is a heroic example of humanity during inhuman times. by Piotr Abryszeński   As an adult, Maximilian Kolbe recalled that when he was a boy he had experienced a vision of the…


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