Norwid online exhibition premiered

To mark the 200th anniversary of Cyprian Kamil Norwid’s birth, the Polish History Museum has prepared an online exhibition titled “Norwid. Biography (Lyricist, ironist, witness. 200 years of solitude)”. Designed to commemorate the poet, painter and sculptor, the exposition is available in Polish and English language versions on the international Google Arts&Culture platform. The exhibition…


Józef Poniatowski: “Greater than the king, this prince”

He died on 19 October 1813 in the Battle of Leipzig – the decisive Battle of the Nations. The battle decided the fall of the First French Empire, and destroyed many hopes and dreams of reestablishing a sovereign Polish state in Europe. Józef Poniatowski, until the final days of his life, refused even the thought…


Helena Modrzejewska. The brightest theater star

Helena Modjeska (or rather: Modrzejewska) became a theater legend during her lifetime. An outstanding actress and Polish patriot, she was widely esteemed and her talent admired. by Piotr Bejrowski   Born on 12 October 1840 in Krakow, Jadwiga Helena Mise was the illegitimate daughter of the wealthy widow Józefa Benda. From an early age, she…


Bar Confederation Establishment Act

The first years of the reign of Stanisław II Augustus, who was elected king in September 1764, abounded in events that polarized the political life of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Close to the king, the reformatory political faction called Familia was centered on representatives of the magnate families of Czartoryski and Poniatowski. The direction of the…



Union of Horodło

This act of union between the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was concluded on October 2, 1413 in the eastern city of Horodło, as a result of the compromise achieved between the incorporative strivings of the Polish side and the separatist policies of Lithuania. The act defined the…


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