Sejmik records: transcripts of political life

One of the tasks of historians (at least those who have learned the principles of modern scientific techniques) is to search for sources, and to subject those already found to critical appraisal. However, won’t the resources of unknown documents be exhausted one day? Fortunately, not only is the number of documents increasing (and archives make…


Three pleasures of the Hutsuls

During his June 1979 meeting with youth in Gniezno, Pope John Paul II intoned the song ‘Red belt’. Three hundred thousand participants of the Holy Mass sang the refrain in chorus: ‘For a Hutsul, there is no life like in the highlands / when fate throws him into the pits – he soon perishes from…


Stanisław Konarski: a reformer in a greasy headscarf

While writing rhetoric textbooks, he illustrated a critique of macaronic, heavily latinized language with excerpts from his own youthful works. Acting as if he was a political scientist avant la lettre, he created the first systematic critique of the liberum veto system, advocating the introduction of the principle of majority voting in parliament of the…



The death of Grzegorz Przemyk: the individual vs the communist dictatorship

In May 1983, militiamen beat Grzegorz Przemyk to death; a young boy celebrating the successful completion of his school exams. The entire state apparatus was involved in covering up the case, and ensuring impunity for the murderers. This tragic story shows how defenceless the individual was against the system of oppression. by Tomasz Kozłowski  …


September 1939 as a ‘site of memory’ for Belarusians

On 1 September 1939, the attack of Nazi Germany on Poland marked the beginning of the Second World War. After 16 days, the armies of the USSR, which was, at that time, an ally of the Third Reich, also crossed the Polish border. One consequence of these actions was the division of the territories of…


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