Ambassador Józef Lipski visiting Hitler on 20 September 1938

There is no point in discussing Poland’s responsibility for the outbreak of World War II. Those who make this claim are fully aware of the fact that it in no way corresponds with reality. Unfortunately, this is because a lie has long served as a tool of Russian historical policy. by Marek Kornat   Insulting…


The Balcerowicz plan: an economic leap into the unknown

Three decades ago, parliament passed a package of bills rebuilding the Polish economy – they came to be known as “The Balcerowicz plan”. The dispute over the assessment of these reforms has been ongoing since 1989. One thing is certain – it was a pioneering operation that allowed for a rapid transition from communism to…


The Union of Lublin

The nature of mutual relations – what each of the sides share and what will remain separate – must be defined and stated in a legal act of union combining two states. It would be a mistake, however, to see such a union of two political organisms simply in the light of treaties and negotiated…


Different than all others - part II

As Urszula Augustyniak pointed out, a series of misunderstandings arose about the political system of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth1. As a rule, it was a variant of state monarchy, hence researchers (e.g. the aforementioned Juliusz Bardach) used to refer to the legal form of the Commonwealth as noblemen’s democracy or the noblemen’s republic. by Michał Rzeczycki…


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