Warsaw Uprising

It was not until late July 1944 that the decision had been taken to fight an uprising against the German occupation forces in Warsaw. Prior to that, commanders of the Home Army had no intention of taking military action in Warsaw, wishing to avoid war damage and the suffering of civilians. by Łukasz Wojtach  …


The Sikorski-Maisky Agreement: a tactical success but a strategic defeat

The Sikorski-Maisky Agreement, concluded at the end of July 1941 between the USSR ambassador and the Prime Minister of the Polish Government-in-Exile, provided an opportunity to free hundreds of thousands of Polish citizens from labor camps and prisons, enabled the establishment of Polish armed forces in the USSR, and strengthened the anti-Hitler coalition. At the…


A Count called Whimsy

He lived during the era of steam and electricity and from the deck of the yacht he would give instructions to lawyers and brokers via a “wireless telegraph”. But his passions, temperament, and flippancy reminded his relatives of magnates from the borderlands two hundred years earlier – “princes” loyal only to their own desires. by…


Paintings by Members of St Luke’s Brotherhood Now Back in Poland

Thanks to the long-standing efforts of the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage and the personal involvement of the Deputy Prime Minister/Minister of Culture and National Heritage Prof. Piotr Gliński, a series of seven paintings by members of St Luke’s Brotherhood and four tapestries by Mieczysław Szymański have returned to Poland after 83 years. The…


Constitution of the Duchy of Warsaw

Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte’s victorious campaign against Prussia and Russia in 1806-1807 ended with the Treaties of Tilsit, which laid the foundations for the revival of the Polish state as a rump Duchy of Warsaw, ruled by Saxon king Fryderyk August (Frederick August I), grandson of the Polish king August III and a descendant of Jan…


Adam Jerzy Czartoryski: in the service of the Polish cause

In his actions and writings, Adam Jerzy Czartoryski combined the ethics of the Enlightenment with a romantic vision of the world. From St. Petersburg and Paris he pursued a European policy, and in his book Rozważania o dyplomacji (Reflections on Diplomacy, 1830) he presented and developed the idea of ​​a united continent ‘A Europe of…


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