Manifesto of the Interim National Government 1863

On January 22, 1863, the Polish ‘Central National Committee’ proclaimed the outbreak of an uprising and issued a manifesto whereby it proclaimed itself the Interim National Government. The document appealed to all the inhabitants of the former Polish-Lithuanian Rzeczpospolita (Commonwealth), within its pre-partition borders, to fight against tsarist rule for liberty. The manifesto heralded the…


A Count called Whimsy

He lived during the era of steam and electricity and from the deck of the yacht he would give instructions to lawyers and brokers via a “wireless telegraph”. But his passions, temperament, and flippancy reminded his relatives of magnates from the borderlands two hundred years earlier – “princes” loyal only to their own desires. by…


Order to dissolve the Home Army given by Home Army Commander-in-Chief General Leopold Okulicki

The first underground groups in German-occupied Poland began to be established as early as in the autumn of 1939. The Home Army (Armia Krajowa, AK), an underground army subordinate to the Polish government in exile and the Commander-in-Chief, took its final shape in February 1942. Its Commanders-in-Chief in chronological order were: Stefan Rowecki ‘Grot’ (arrested…


1945 – the Polish perspective

In the evening of the 17th of January 1945 in Moscow, 24 cannon salutes were fired to celebrate the capture of Warsaw. After 75 years the Russian government is replicating this gesture by organizing a firework show – along with the same salutes. Sadly, Kremlin is not only copying old gestures, but also returning to…


The Nihil novi Constitution

The Nihil novi Constitution was adopted by the General Sejm (parliament) convened in the city of Radom in 1505. Its passage entailed one of the stages in the conflict between the magnates of the royal council and the representation of the szlachta (gentry) gathered in the Chamber of Deputies – i.e., the lower house of…


Adam Jerzy Czartoryski: in the service of the Polish cause

In his actions and writings, Adam Jerzy Czartoryski combined the ethics of the Enlightenment with a romantic vision of the world. From St. Petersburg and Paris he pursued a European policy, and in his book Rozważania o dyplomacji (Reflections on Diplomacy, 1830) he presented and developed the idea of ​​a united continent ‘A Europe of…


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