Paweł Włodkowic's address at the Council of Constance

The Union of Krewo that took place in 1385 and the following Christianization of Lithuania were a true political catastrophe for the Teutonic Order. Firstly, the knights lost their previous excuse for their Christianization expeditions to the east. Secondly, their military strength was shaken, which was eventually proven by the defeat of the Teutonic Knights…


The Union of Lublin

From 1385 onwards, Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania functioned as two separate states ruled by a single monarch. Initially, only Poland favoured the idea to deepen the union. In time, however, the Lithuanian szlachta (gentry/nobility), seeking to acquire political rights similar to those of the Polish szlachta, came to support the concept. Lest…


The events of June 1976 in Radom

On 25 June 1976, in response to a price increase announced by the government, strikes and demonstrations were organized in a number of workplaces across Poland. The most notable disturbances involving workers occurred in Radom, Ursus and Płock. Social protest was brutally crushed by the milicja, the Polish People’s Republic police, and by the Security…


“Genocide as a Crime under International Law”

Rafał Lemkin (1900–59) was an outstanding criminal law expert of Polonised-Jewish descent. He graduated from the Faculty of Law at the John Casimir University (Uniwersytet Jana Kazimierza) in Lwów. He contributed to the codification of the Polish penal law, and analysed criminal legislations of the totalitarian regimes of Italy and Soviet Russia. In 1933, he…


Krzysztof Makowski chosen Vice-President of the International Committee of Historical Sciences

Krzysztof Makowski, professor from the Faculty of Historical Studies at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, was unanimously elected vice-president of the International Committee of Historical Sciences during its general assembly. The association focused on research in various areas of historical sciences, established in Geneva in 1926, is composed of 54 national committees, 31 international…


The legendary collection of Michał Sokolnicki returns to Poland

After more than 75 years, the ‘Michał Sokolnicki collection’: the property, archives and library of the last ambassador of the Second Polish Republic to Turkey, is returning to Poland. This is probably the most complete and best preserved collection of Polish diplomatic memorabilia from the interwar period and the Second World War. On Monday, President…


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