Józef Piłsudski's letter to Feliks Perl

The leftist Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS) and the nationalistic National Democracy (Narodowa Demokracja) were the two most powerful Polish pro-independence groups established towards the end of the 19th century which continued their political activity in the 20th century. Among the most prominent figures in the first one was Józef Piłsudski (pseudonym “Ziuk”),…


Jan Olszewski. Duty and independence

Jan Olszewski was born on 20 August 1930 to a railway family that has been strongly associated with the tradition of Polish independence ever since. One of his grandfather’s brothers was killed in the January Uprising of 1863-1864 against the Russian invader. Stefan Okrzeja, the brother of his grandmother, formed the Combat Organization of the…


Demands of the striking crews of factory workers and the enterprises represented by the Inter-Factory Strike Committee

Communism, which was imposed on Poland in 1945, elicited society’s opposition and resistance. The economic crisis that was becoming increasingly severe in Poland from the mid-1970s, coupled with the growing consolidation of opposition milieux, led to an outbreak of societal discontent in the summer of 1980. Initially, the protests were characterized by uncoordinated strikes in…


Union of Krewo (Act of Kreva)

This document, known as the Union of Krewo (also, the Act of Kreva), was issued on August 14, 1385 by  Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila), Grand Duke of Lithuania, as the outcome of the negotiations he had conducted with the Polish lords acting on behalf of the child queen Jadwiga (Hedwig), and Jadwiga’s mother  Elżbieta Bośniaczka (Elisabeth…


Founding Meeting of the Polish National Committee

During the First World War, the Polish independence milieus disagreed on geopolitical choices and decided to support different European powers. Roman Dmowski, the leader of the National Democracy (Narodowa Demokracja, ND), wanted to strive for autonomy within the Russian Empire so before the outbreak of the war, he supported the Triple Entente that was the…


Tadeusz Rejtan, Polish voice of objection

Becoming a national hero because one decided to obey the rules of parliamentary procedure? Being shown on innumerable stamps and posters, and what is more – becoming a part of a proverb? (“Kłaść się Rejtanem” means literally “to lie down like Rejtan”, but metaphorically – “to oppose something strongly”). Indeed this is what happened to…


1 17 18 19 20 21 23