Dangerous Minds: Independent Students' Association

On 17 February 1981, protests were putting the communist authorities under pressure, which resulted in the legalizing of the Independent Students’ Association. A new, autonomous youth organization operating alongside “Solidarity”, its members would eventually become famous for their radicalism, especially during the political transformation. by Tomasz Kozłowski   At the end of the seventies, students…


Warsaw Confederation: tolerance in the name of civil liberties

On 31 October 1517 the theses of Martin Luther put an end to the medieval world. The religious unity of the past centuries was over, leaving room for new conflicts and problems in the future. One did not have to wait long for their arrival. by Michał Rzeczycki   Centuries ago, it was believed that…


Gdynia: Poland’s window to the sea

When the First World War ended, the independent Polish state was born. However, although the state was formally established, its borders were still far from being determined. This was not an easy process, as there were various political, ethnic, historical and economic arguments that needed to be taken into consideration. At certain points, some of…


The Long Route to Poland's Round Table Agreement

On 6 February 1989, the Round Table discussions began. During those negotiations, representatives of the Communist authorities and the Solidarity opposition sought common ground for further action. In large part, they discussed political issues, but not only: they talked as well about the economy, administring justice, ecology, even housing policy. This agreement became possible thanks…


Like a Phoenix from the Ashes

The former seat of Masovian dukes and Polish-Lithuanian monarchs has remained a symbol of Polish statehood for centuries. It was the venue of parliamentary sessions and witnessed triumphs (such as the homage paid to King Sigismund III by the Russian Tsar taken prisoner), but also shameful events, such as the consent of corrupt and intimidated…


Solidarity Day: United States and the support of “Solidarity”

US President Ronald Reagan declared 30 January 1982 to be Solidarity Day. This was both a gesture of support for the citizens of the People’s Republic of Poland and one of opposition to martial law in Poland. However, the White House did not intend limit itself to symbolic gestures. by Tomasz Kozłowski   In late…


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