Poznań, June 1956

On 28 and 29 June 1956, workers’ protests broke out in Poznań, and subsequently turned into street fighting. The army was deployed by the Communist authorities to crush the unrest. At least 79 lives were lost as a result, and more than 600 people were wounded. by Mariusz Jarosiński    After the bloody pacification came…


Freedom and Truth

1. It happened 70 years ago. They were tied up and killed with a shot to the back of the head, as there was less blood spilt this way. Later on the bodies – still with the buttons of their uniforms depicting eagles on – were placed in deep ditches. Here, in Katyn, four thousand…


“Ashes, ashes we all fall down”. A history of epidemics in Poland

Over the course of history, societies have experienced ongoing waves of epidemics and pandemics of infectious diseases. Poland has not been excluded in this. These bouts of sickness did not only impact history but also the development of medicine, the functioning of state institutions and the nation’s way of life. by Michał Szukała   Throughout…


Deliver us from famine, destruction, earthquake…

Fear has accompanied man’s earthly journey for millennia. Until recently, nuclear war has been the biggest danger. Now, it is climate change. Until the end of the 19th Century, the greatest source of fear was the deadly triumvirate of war, famine and epidemic. Diseases occupy a special place among the roots of our anxiety. by…


The Balcerowicz plan: an economic leap into the unknown

Three decades ago, parliament passed a package of bills rebuilding the Polish economy – they came to be known as “The Balcerowicz plan”. The dispute over the assessment of these reforms has been ongoing since 1989. One thing is certain – it was a pioneering operation that allowed for a rapid transition from communism to…


The Union of Lublin

The nature of mutual relations – what each of the sides share and what will remain separate – must be defined and stated in a legal act of union combining two states. It would be a mistake, however, to see such a union of two political organisms simply in the light of treaties and negotiated…


1 19 20 21 22