1919: the founding year of the Polish state

The development of a new political landscape in Central Europe after World War I was by no means something temporary. About probably the most difficult moments in the modern history of Poland and about the irrationality of a fragmented history we talk to Professor Andrzej Chwalba. Polishhistory: How did Poland in 1919 differ from other countries…


Lwów is a city with a rebellious nature

Multi-nationality is an integral part of the landscape of Central and Eastern Europe. I really wished to avoid writing a one-dimensional book based on one narrative, even if it coincided with the way my compatriots would like to see the events of 1918 in Lwów, says Damian Markowski, the author of the book about Polish-Ukrainian…




The Establishment of the Bar Confederation

Ewa Zientara: Why was the Bar Confederation formed? Dorota Dukwicz: This question is only seemingly easy. In 1767 the Radom Confederates hoped that Russia would help them depose the hated King Stanisław II Augustus and move away the spectre of the demands made by the non-Catholic nobility, that is, dissenters, or dissidents, as they were…


For Germans, the beginning of the war is still 22 June 1941

There was a mass absolution in East Germany of its Nazi past, says Wolfgang Templin, former director of the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Warsaw and recepient of the European Solidarity Centre Medal in 2010. It’s just that only those acknowledging the Communist interpretation of history were absolved. Mikołaj Mirowski: First came the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, then…


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