1935 in Poland

“The Sanation political movement was never uniform, it was bound by the person of Józef Piłsudski – his authority, and his will. When he was absent, differences became more pronounced. Each of the groups was striving to play a dominant role in the country, and be seen as the one most obviously and faithfully continuing…


To break the mold is the historian's responsibility

“Reversing the schemes, sometimes adopted without reflection, I consider to be part of our historical duty. It consists in constantly rediscovering the past, not in establishing one canonical version in line with the political order of today”, says Professor Andrzej Nowak in the interview about the common European memory, and challenges it constitutes for the…


Jan Sehn. Poland’s forgotten Nazi hunter

Jan Sehn (1909-1965) was a Polish lawyer and professor at the Jagiellonian University. Shortly after the war, he conducted research at the former Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp and also participated in preparing accusations against several dozen German war criminals who had worked at the camp. Additionally, he published a number of scientific papers on the functioning…


Walery Sławek: Piłsudski's closest aide

Walery Sławek, conspirator, intelligence officer, and thrice Poland’s prime minister. When a bomb exploded in his hands, he lost his left eye, the hearing in one ear and several fingers. Two years later, his fiancée died, leaving him a bachelor until the end of his days. As a politician, he used to say that “it…


This is not a grand history of the Second World War

“In the Battle of the Bulge, during Christmas 1944, the Germans did a lot of damage to the Americans, and the local commanders were complaining loudly about the absence of American intelligence. They turned to the OSS to come up with a remedy”, says John Micgiel. It turned out that Poles were to support this…


The 100th anniversary of Józef Piłsudski’s becoming First Marshal of the independent Poland

“Until Piłsudski’s assumption of this title, the title of marshal did not exist in the Polish military tradition”, says Professor Włodzimierz Suleja. How did it happen that Józef Piłsudski became First Marshal of the independent Poland?   Józef Piłsudski is one of the most distinguished figures involved in the restoration of sovereignty after the First…


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