21 demands of MKS

Communism, which was imposed on Poland in 1945, elicited society’s opposition and resistance. The economic crisis that was becoming increasingly severe in Poland from the mid-1970s, coupled with the growing consolidation of opposition milieux, led to an outbreak of societal discontent in the summer of 1980. Initially, the protests were characterized by uncoordinated strikes in…


Union of Krewo (Act of Kreva)

This document, known as the Union of Krewo (also, the Act of Kreva), was issued on August 14, 1385 by  Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila), Grand Duke of Lithuania, as the outcome of the negotiations he had conducted with the Polish lords acting on behalf of the child queen Jadwiga (Hedwig), and Jadwiga’s mother  Elżbieta Bośniaczka (Elisabeth…


Warsaw Uprising

It was not until late July 1944 that the decision had been taken to fight an uprising against the German occupation forces in Warsaw. Prior to that, commanders of the Home Army had no intention of taking military action in Warsaw, wishing to avoid war damage and the suffering of civilians. As part of the…


Constitution of the Duchy of Warsaw

Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte’s victorious campaign against Prussia and Russia in 1806-1807 ended with the Treaties of Tilsit, which laid the foundations for the revival of the Polish state as a rump Duchy of Warsaw, ruled by Saxon king Fryderyk August (Frederick August I), grandson of the Polish king August III and a descendant of Jan…


The Union of Lublin - the copy and the original

The unique document of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and one of the crucial elements of the legal and political tradition of Central Europe. The film tells the story of the creation of the original document of the Union of Lublin and its turbulent history. The creators of the copy discover the secrets of the work of…


450th anniversary of the Union of Lublin

From 1385 onwards, Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania functioned as two separate states ruled by a single monarch. Initially, only Poland favoured the idea to deepen the union. In time, however, the Lithuanian szlachta (gentry/nobility), seeking to acquire political rights similar to those of the Polish szlachta, came to support the concept. Lest…


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