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The Constitution of the 3rd of May (the Government Statute)

During the reign of the last king of Poland,  Stanisław August Poniatowski (Stanisław II Augustus), daring attempts at internal reform were carried out in order to avert disaster for the Rzeczpospolita (Commonwealth). A promising opportunity arose with the Sejm that deliberated between 1788 and 1792, as it was a “confederated Sejm”, meaning that unanimity was…


Henryk Dobrzański: A Crazy Major

Henryk Dobrzański lived and served in the Polish army according to the motto: “I will not lay down my arms, I will not take off my uniform. So help me God.” Henryk Dobrzański, aka Major Hubal, was taken by surprise and killed by the Germans exactly 80 years ago, on 30 April 1940. He was…


Saint Adalbert: Martyr and patron Saint of Poland

Born Vojtěch of Slavník, St Adalbert served as bishop of Prague until he came to Poland from the court of Emperor Otto III as a missionary, and eventual martyr. On 23 April 997, this first Slavic saint was killed during the conversion of the Prussians to the Christian faith. He was born around 956 in…


Olga Boznańska: The painter of souls

Olga Boznańska is one of the most important artists of the 19th and early 20th Century, famous for her original style and boundless devotion to art. She was born in Krakow, the daughter of engineer Adam Boznański, Nowina coat of arms, and Eugénie Mondan, of French origin, precisely 155 years ago – on 15 April…


The Golden Writ of 12 April 1863

The organizers of the January Uprising, which broke out in the Russian partition in 1863, tried to win the peasant masses over to the national cause. The Insurgent National Government had drawn conclusions from the people’s insignificant support for the November Uprising and from the tragic Galician Slaughter. In the absence of a regular army,…


A civic history by Tomasz Merta

by Robert Kostro Today, the concept of historical policy has become trivial, but twenty years ago, it could easily provoke fierce dispute in newspapers. A call to “leave history to the historians!” was constantly present in the ongoing intellectual debates. When Poland regained its independence, and a new ruling elite, it was acknowledged for quite…


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