My name was Czesława Kwoka

Look at the photo carefully. The face of a Polish girl dressed in the camp’s striped uniform is symbolic of Nazi policy towards children whose lives were considered unnecessary.   The German Generalplan Ost was created on the basis of the assumption that  a “living space” (“Lebensraum”) in the territories of Central and Eastern Europe…


Olga Boznańska: The painter of souls

Olga Boznańska is one of the most important artists of the 19th and early 20th Century, famous for her original style and boundless devotion to art. She was born in Krakow, the daughter of engineer Adam Boznański, Nowina coat of arms, and Eugénie Mondan, of French origin, on 15 April 1865. It was her mother…


Universal of 24 October 1773 issued by the Commission of National Education

Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Society of Jesus in 1773, which forced changes in the organisation of education in the Commonwealth since it was precisely the Society that was primarily responsible for education at the primary and secondary level in the country. The establishment of the Commission of National Education (Komisja Edukacji Narodowej, KEN) was…


Józef Poniatowski: “Greater than the king, this prince”

He died on 19 October 1813 in the Battle of Leipzig – the decisive Battle of the Nations. The battle decided the fall of the First French Empire, and destroyed many hopes and dreams of reestablishing a sovereign Polish state in Europe. Józef Poniatowski, until the final days of his life, refused even the thought…


The Solidarity Revolution from the point of view of the KGB

General Mucha’s report of 23 August 1980 is the first known document of this status describing the KGB’s reaction to the events in Poland. The strikes are presented as a counter-revolution and it suggests that Poles should be given “brotherly help”. by Andrzej Grajewski The addressee of the report is the First Secretary of the…



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