Union of Horodło

This act of union between the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was concluded on October 2, 1413 in the eastern city of Horodło, as a result of the compromise achieved between the incorporative strivings of the Polish side and the separatist policies of Lithuania. The act defined the…


Appeal of the Workers’ Defense Committee to Society and the Authorities of the PRL

In the communist People’s Republic of Poland (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) the authorities had full control of the economy. They decided about the production volume, distribution manner, and retail prices. The December 1970 increase in food prices sparked social unrest. Even though it was forcedly suppressed by the government (a few dozen people were shot)…


The Cabinet of Tadeusz Mazowiecki

The Cabinet of Tadeusz Mazowiecki was appointed on 12 September 1989, and today we celebrate the 30th anniversary of this historical event. Mazowiecki, important figure of the democratic opposition, became the first non-communist premier of Poland after 1945. Full text of the Inaugural address of Premier Tadeusz Mazowiecki The first semi-free election in Poland’s post-war…


General Stanisław Maczek and His Soldiers

Krakowskie Przedmieście Street next to Zamkowy Square in Warsaw is now a venue for a unique open-air exhibition prepared by the Polish History Museum in cooperation with the General Maczek Museum in the Dutch city of Breda. After the Polish capital, where it can be viewed until 28 September, the trilingual exhibition (presented in Polish,…


1 September 1939: The beginning of hell

“This means war. From now on, all other matters and issues become of secondary importance”, stated the message broadcast by Polish Radio on the morning of 1 September 1939. “We set our public and private lives on a special track. We have entered war. The entire effort of the nation must go in one direction….


The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

It is officially known under the name of the Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In fact, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact’s most important element was a secret protocol that projected new borders of Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, euphemistically called “spheres of influence”. As a result of the mutual agreement…


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