subscribe to our newsletter

How the Constitution of 3 May 1791 was passed

The passing of the Government Act was possible because an understanding had been reached between members of the enlightened opposition and the King, Stanisław August Poniatowski. by Piotr Ugniewski The turning point had been a long discussion between the leader of that opposition, Ignacy Potocki, and the monarch, at the Royal Castle, on 4 December…



A Community in print

When Czesław Milosz arrived in Warsaw in 1981, fresh from winning the Nobel Prize for Literature, one of the visits he made, was to a private apartment, to meet with the people responsible for bringing his poems to Polish readers. From 1951, when Milosz had refused to return to Stalinist Poland, a ban had been…


Penderecki: an avant-garde man with a passion for music and trees

“I am mostly scared of the moment when I feel that I have planted all the trees or I have written all the pieces, but I am far from this – I still have plans,” he stated on his 80th birthday. Krzysztof Penderecki, one of the world’s greatest contemporary composers, died on 29 March at…


The Katyn Massacre: Its Chronology, Scale, Victims and Unpunished Perpetrators

The ordeal of Polish Army officers, policemen, prison and forest guards, intelligence and counter-intelligence agents as well as Polish administrative staff in the Easter Borderlands began on 17 September 1939. It was then that the Red Army invaded Poland, belatedly implementing the arrangements of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of 23 August 1939. Soviet captivity awaited around…


Freedom and Truth

1. It happened 70 years ago. They were tied up and killed with a shot to the back of the head, as there was less blood spilt this way. Later on the bodies – still with the buttons of their uniforms depicting eagles on – were placed in deep ditches. Here, in Katyn, four thousand…


1 2 3 4 5